Dates mathematics, Chapter 1

dates mathematics

Do you like dates or mathematics? We know what dates and mathematics are, but we do not know yet how and when they could be done in one recipe? In this text I shall answer this question and, so, bringing into light one of the most beautiful work pieces in mathematics and natural sciences. The revelation came to me about one year ago when I started again to reflect on numbers that are very common in the Islamic realm. I wrote then down a few lines and left it to time. At the closure of 2016 and the beginning of 2017 I thought it was necessary to go ahead with that (idea) as it may help in my career as a scientist and academic researcher. The courage I had in this work was due to my engagement in basic research since 2000 as ESKAS-scholarship holder at the University of Basel and more recently (2015) in school mathematics for one year with my niece.

In this mathematics discovery I intuited that numbers could be ordered according to their value and, thus, could be handled mathematically with such order note rather than their true value or amount note. On doing so, elegant equations, beautiful patterns and new applications might be possible. The commencement was truly thrilling and exciting. It threw green light that everything should be all right.

1- The ordinal numbering system

The numbers in the ordinal numbering system can be written as such:

…., I9-, I8-, I7-, I6-, I5-, I4-, I3-, I2-, I1, I2, I3, I4, I5, I6, I7, I8, I9, ….

These ordinal numbers match the following numbers in the common mathematics:

…., – 8, – 7, – 6, – 5, – 4, – 3, – 2, – 1, 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, ….

2- Equations to derive ordinal numbers

Ix = x – 1 ………………………………… (1); when x is positive

Ix- = – (x – 1) ………………………….. (1-1); when x is negative

Ix/y = (x/y) – 1 ………………………. (2); when x/y is positive, and x/y > 1

Ix/y- = – ((x/y) – 1) ……………………. (2-1); when x/y is negative and |x/y| > 1

3- Simple mathematical operations with ordinal whole numbers (In)

3.1: Additions and subtractions

Addition rule:

Ix + Iy = Ix+y-1 ……………… (3); when x and y are positive

Ix- + Iy- = I(x+y-1)- ……………… (3); when x and y are negative

Ix + Iy- = I(x-y+1) ………… (3-1); when x > |y| or x = |y|

Ix- + Iy = I(-x+y-1) ………… (3-2); when |x|> y

Subtraction rule:

Ix – Iy = Ix + Iy- ………………. Use either (3-1) or (3-2)

I(x-) – Iy- = Ix- + Iy ………… Use either (3-1) or (3-2)

3.2: Multiplication and division

Multiplication rule:

Ix . Iy = I(x.y) – (x+y-2) ………………. (4); when x and y are positive

Ix- . Iy- = I(-x.-y) – (x+y-2) ………………. (4-1); when x and y are negative

Ix- . Iy = I((x.y) – (x+y-2))- ………………. (4-2); when either x or y is negative

Division rule:

Iz/Ix = I(z+x-2)/x-1 ………………….. (5), when x and y are both positive or both negative

Iz-/Ix = I((z+x-2)/x-1))- ………………….. (5-1), when either x or y is negative

 

Examples:

1) I1 = 1 – 1 = 0

2) I2 = 2 – 1 = 1

3) I2- = – (2 – 1) = – 1

4) I1 + I2 = I1+2-1 = I2 = 1

5) I2 + I2- = I2-2+1 = I1 = 0

6) I3 – I2- = I3 + I2 = I3+2-1 = I4 = 3

7) I2 . I2 = I4-4+2 = I2 = 1

8) I2/I2 = I(2+2-2)/2-1 = I2/1 = I2 = 1

9) I1/I1 = I(1+1-2)/1-1 = I0/0 (not known)

10) I2/I3 = I(2+3-2)/3-1 = I3/2 = 3/2 -1 = 1/2

 

N.B. Intellectual and perpetuations rights of this material are protected property for the author. Please, in case of any questions or interest in this material refer to the author. Author’s e-mail address: elsherbinimustafa@gmail.com

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Medical Biochemistry, a hierarchy

medical biochemistry hierarchy
This post has the intention to help medical students to learn medical Biochemistry in an organized and reasonably planned way. It may provide an interesting introduction trial that is largely personal. Learners of other scientific branches may be also interested by this kind of presentation.

1 predetermination, projection
Projection is used to denote that the characteristics and phenomena exhibited by a single cell may be also noticed in some way in the whole organism. Example: the cell perceives and the organism also perceives.

2 prerequisites, integration and responsiveness
Integration means that the many different compartments and processes in the cell work in a harmony. The cell responds to both external and internal signals, i.e. responsiveness.

3 processes, order, special function and reproduction
Order is the hallmark for any living system and is the utmost goal for every vital process to keep a dynamic steady state. A cell has almost always a special function, e.g. formation of urea by a liver cell (hepatocyte). Cell division is the counterpart for reproduction at the whole organism’s level.

4 concepts, structure-function relationship, thermodynamics laws, non-covalent bonding, and activation-driven change
A function is almost always ascribed to a particular structure, i.e. structure-function relationship, e.g. in proteins. The likelihood for a biochemical process or species to occur can be explained by thermodynamics laws. Non-covalent chemical bonding is wonderful means to permit biochemical structures and changes. Many biochemical processes are initiated through investment of energy, i.e. activation-driven change.

5 central metabolic pathways
Glycolysis (cleavage of glucose), HMP (hexose monophosphate) pathway, TCA (tricarboxylic acid) cycle, cellular respiration (electron transport chain) and fatty acid synthesis and degradation may be good examples.

6 phenomena, shuttling, isomerism, centrality, symmetry, cyclicity, and vital mirroring
Shuttling is needed when biological membranes allow only some biochemical species to pass in or out.
Isomerism means certain spatial orientation of atoms or chemical groups in a given chemical species.
Centrality means the assignment to some key molecule to perform a given role, e.g. glutamate in amino acid metabolism.
Symmetry is important biochemical phenomenon, e.g. in the structure of some biochemical species.
Cyclicity is shown in many changes that take the form of a cycle, e.g. TCA cycle.
Vital mirroring is meant to denote certain biochemical changes on the different sides of biological membranes, e.g. food digest in the intestinal lumen and the contents of portal vein blood.

Face and act

face and act
It may have to do with the laws of nature that two entities interconvert or call for one another as is the case with my face and act. Knowledge calls for hope, warmth calls for trust, freedom calls for courage, beauty calls for relief and so on.
In the world of people, the perception of “face” is a great matter of subjectivity and variations and, therefore, should rely wholly on the “act” to which it is linked. This assumption may make many people comfortable as for however and whatever they look like in terms of physical characteristics because they can have a reasonable approval and palatability merely through doing fair and good.
It may be thus everyone’s concern as for the type of “act” that is automatically called for by his/her “face”.